It turns out that I wasn't the only one infuriated by the default behavior of Google Calendar to scroll between months with a mouse wheel. Especially with the Apple Magic Mouse (which controls 2-dimensional scrolling with the touch-sensing top surface of the mouse), unintended switching between months is frequent and aggravating.
Programmer Ivan Morgillo created an extension for the Chrome browser which disables mouse scrolling in Google Calendar. The extension is open-source and free.
NOTE: After installing the extension, you'll need to quit and re-launch Chrome for the extension to disable mouse scrolling in Google Calendar.
Google Calendar Scroll Disabler at the Chrome Store
For nerds: google-calendar-scroll-disabler's GitHub page
HINT: If you want this behavior to be modified across all your Chrome-equipped computers, you can sync your extensions across Chrome installations.